He fell overboard about four times and they pulled him back in. Rice summoned the will to continue on alone for 12 more hours to Camp Clay, and sent out a rescue party. Brainard was the key to the plan -- the men would follow their first sergeant. After four weeks of hardships and setbacks, Rice and his companions had to turn back, empty-handed. But in the summer of 1882, the relief ship did not come. xx, 323, (1) pp. On the 1st of June, 1882, Brainard and his companions returned to a boisterous welcome from their colleagues, and from their grateful commander. ", Adolphus W. Greely (Tim Hopper): "Darling Retta, We but await the grave. Philip Cronenwett, Historian: It just made absolutely no sense to leave Fort Conger. In fact, most were cavalrymen -- only weeks before they'd been stationed at outposts across the Great Plains. You've got essentially five months of pure light where the sun never sets, five months of dark, where the sun never rises. In the 1870s, Greely developed an interest in the Arctic region; he also heard of a potential exploratory mission to the far North. That night, as Greely slept, three men approached Brainard with a plan. Greely hoped to find stores of food there and to improve the chances of meeting an Army resupply ship. "The Secretaries of Navy and War," it read, "concur that nothing can be done this season to reach Mr. Greely. C. A. They endured frostbite and natural amputation, madness, and even cannibalism. Morale reached a new low among Greely's team, and there was talk of mutiny. 1896. Review a timeline of the Greely Expedition. Twenty-five-year-old Sergeant David Brainard set a fierce pace for the men as they raced to build the outpost they named Fort Conger. Breton Books, Wreck Cove, Nova Scotia. Powell, Theodore: "The Long Rescue", W.H. And Fredericks does all he can to sustain him. When members of the rescue party reached Camp Clay, they came upon a scene of horror. Greely Expedition. The muskox and caribou that they would've got further north at Fort Conger don't go there. It was introduced in Jamaa Journal Volume 108 on December 19th, 2013, and the Hard difficulty mode was later introduced soon after on January 9th, 2014. Composed by David Prior with John Matthias Brainard led the mission. The two men took shelter behind an iceberg. A.W. And the key to understanding this system was the Polar Regions. Image result for greely expedition map. For more than a century his records gathered dust, until once again the Arctic captured the world's attention. He was also a member of the Sons of the Revolution, the General Society of the War of 1812 and the Grand Army of the Republic. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "Ellison was a pitiable sight, with his face distorted and frozen, and his limbs ice-like and useless. He was the son of John Balch Greeley and Frances Dunn Cobb Greeley. He has yellow eyes or reddish-brown in adventures; in his beta artwork, he had white eyes and a ruby in his left eye. Einar Unnsteinsson & Vigdis Esradottir/Hótel Laugarhóll Hólmavík, Iceland Without Brainard's support, the conspiracy fell apart. Once again, it was clear that the Army had other priorities. Philip Cronenwett, Historian: It was very clear that some of the bodies had had flesh stripped off, and that it, the flesh had been cut off with a knife. By summer, a relief ship would pick them up and bring them home. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. Narrator: "Rice," Brainard wrote, "was as brave and noble as any man the world has ever known.". Gaukur Gunnarsson, Assistant Camera On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry. To die is easy; very easy; it is only hard to strive, to endure, to live. Even if they couldn't reach her husband, at least they could leave a rescue party at Littleton Island. We are 24 starved men; we have done all we can to help ourselves, and shall ever struggle on, but it drives me almost insane to face the future. Adolphus Washington Greely (March 27, 1844 – October 20, 1935) was a United States Army officer, polar explorer, and recipient of the Medal of Honor. Narrator: The isolation affected everyone. By the end of August they knew that the ship wasn't coming. On March 21, 1935, a special act of Congress awarded Greely the Medal of Honor in recognition of his long and distinguished career. He even took his parka off and wrapped it around Rice. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: You're beginning to see the strong people become stronger, and the weak people become weaker. Courtesy of Monticello, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc. “For Henrietta” Narrator: A coalition of scientists had enlisted the governments of 11 nations in an unprecedented quest to understand the earth's climate. Lotz, J. In accordance with his instructions for this case, Greely decided in August 1883 to abandon Fort Conger and retreat south with his team. Narrator: Through the long night, Greely pored over the contingency plans in his orders. Jim Lotz, Writer: He started to blow his top, threatened to shoot some of the soldiers. Just a few hours out, Rice and Fredericks were forced to hide in their sleeping bag as a gale battered them for 22 hours. Within hours the ship was crushed and sent to the bottom of the sea, along with her precious cargo. “Framing Freedom” and “Slavery: This Abomination” He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 26 April 1864 and to captain on 4 April 1865. We started off under the brightest of skies, with the finest of weather.". From PBS and American Experience - Using scientific accounts, diaries, photographs and letters, this film reveals how poor planning, personality clashes, questionable decisions and pure bad luck conspired to turn a noble scientific mission into a human tragedy. It was insane to do this. And he decided to take Ellison. Narrator: The Greely expedition had caused barely a ripple when it left three years earlier; but now the public was clamoring for its rescue. Chief of Bureau of Navigation. Robert N. Dennis Collection of Stereoscopic Views, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations William J. Rhees. Composed and Performed by David Prior By the time a final relief force arrived the following summer, in 1884, only seven emaciated, unrecognizable men remained inside a half-collapsed tent. He believed a rescue ship was waiting, but there was none. Susan A. Kaplan, Anthropologist: At Fort Conger they had everything they needed. They were able to move up there rather quickly. VIII. Narrator: For the enlisted men, winter enforced an idleness that was no less challenging. Review a timeline of the Greely Expedition. Greely’s expedition left the northernmost North American port—St. They had beaten the British record by four miles. Narrator: On January 18th the men gathered on a rocky hill that would become known as Cemetery Ridge. Storms battered them mercilessly, until they huddled on a piece of ice barely large enough to hold them. Even as Greely won over his men in that third winter, he had come to grasp the unthinkable: they had been abandoned. He was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867. Thought Equity Motion It used to be in the 1700s that people would collect things and put them in cabinets of curiosity and try to identify and label what they were. And then Fredericks brought back all of Rice's unused food to the group. This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 01:28. Jonathan Weaver, Gaffers Adolphus Greely.". Corbis Narrator: If Henrietta was ever going to see her husband again, she would have to turn the will of Congress, the Army, and the President. Even David Brainard was stunned by Greely's response. Narrator: Two weeks after they left Fort Conger, the ice seized up. Narrator: The military had been Greely's salvation. Most congressmen believed that the government had no business funding scientific endeavors. In July 1881, Lt. A. W. Greely and his crew of 24 scientists and explorers were bound for the last region unmarked on global maps… David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "The C.O. "No game, no food, and apparently no hopes from Littleton Island," Greely wrote in his journal. Nearby is the grave of David Brainard — the two men forever as close as they were during the long dark winter at Camp Clay. They had a wonderful station that was warm and secure. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: Henry was a big guy, he'd begged to get on Greely's expedition... but he had a very checkered history. Greely's militaristic style kept order in place but left some questioning his leadership capabilities. He said, "Well I've had more baths than you guys have had all year.". "But as the men begin to contemplate that they may not return home, then suddenly leaving behind some kind of legacy for all this pain and suffering becomes more important." If they didn't work together, if they didn't obey what Lieutenant Greely said that they needed to do they were all going to die. Narrator: Adolphus Greely died in 1935, at the age of 91. There, he learned about technology and weather systems. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "A long talk was given to the crowd of angry and excited men by Lieutenant Greely, who said that he was not a man to be trifled with and in case of necessity he would not stop at the loss of human lives to restore order.". In the end, a small band of enthusiasts had secured funding for the expedition from a lame-duck Congress. Philip Cronenwett, Historian: It was absolutely necessary that that happen because he would in fact have stolen more and more food as the men became weaker and weaker and they would have all died. Commodore J. G. WALKER. Goði Már Guðbjörnsson Garlington just got the hell out of there. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. The few whalers that ventured this far north often found the passage choked with ice that drifted south in the summer.Greely's orders were precise, but they took little account of the vagaries of the ice. Narrator: Rice drove himself past the point of exhaustion, seeking to ensure their survival. Jan 10, 2015 - Explore Pinfectionist's board "Polar explorers - Adolphus Greely", followed by 8259 people on Pinterest. David Shedd, Greely Descendant: It would almost be as if we sent people out into space, lost track of them, and then argued about whether we could afford to go look for them. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: The most striking thing about an arctic winter is that it's totally dark. Susan A. Kaplan, Anthropologist: These men were really extraordinary in the care that they took of one another. Rice claimed that he was just tired, and even joked feebly with Fredericks, but then his mind began to wander. There is this real sense in isolation that you're in touch with something that's infinite, enormous, something that is beyond human ken, beyond human understanding. Jim Lotz, Writer: There was an effort to cover up and to conceal the cannibalism but there's no way you can make any information system airtight. Francis B. Heitman. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: One of the organizers had recommended that they not have their own ship; he felt that ships were "cities of refuge" that made explorers timid. Framepool, Archival Photographs Courtesy of 'Greely, is this you?'". But he understood orders. For 24 hours they drifted in and out of consciousness, so that no one was quite sure whether they had really heard a ship's whistle the next evening. And he hacked some ice to create a makeshift grave for Rice. Narrator: As the only daughter of a bank president, Henrietta had grown up in wealth and comfort. New York: McGraw-Hill, (1961). Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party were able to discover many hitherto unknown miles along the coast of northwest Greenland. I decided to buy David Brainard's two books, the 1929 The Outpost of the Lost (Bobbs-Merrill Company), which includes the last part of Brainard's journals of the ill-fated expedition. Adolphus Washington Greely, U.S. Army officer whose scientific expedition to the Arctic resulted in the exploration of a considerable amount of terrain on Ellesmere Island, Canada, and on coastal Greenland, where he also set a contemporary record … in Washington, D.C. She didn't have many connections, but she worked them tirelessly, urging one cousin to pester the Chicago Tribune, another the Atlanta Constitution, while others did the same in Denver, New Orleans, Philadelphia and elsewhere. Saved by Danie Ferreira. 1, pg. "I am very sorry not to have found out sooner his full worth.". ", The response was slow in coming. The Studios at Las Colinas, Special Thanks The Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations The prospect terrified the men, and Greely's repeated declarations that he intended to follow his orders to the letter further poisoned an already dangerous atmosphere. Fredericks watched in desperation as Rice was taken up with recollections of home and food, and then slowly drifted into unconsciousness. David Brainard (Rich Porfido): "We have crossed the Rubicon, and to turn back now is out of the question. The Greely Expedition reveals how poor planning, personality clashes, questionable decisions and pure bad luck conspired to turn a noble scientific mission into a human tragedy. The expedition's doctor would declare Greely insane, and another officer would lead the men back to Fort Conger. He had complete faith in his orders, in the United States Army and, above all, in himself. Then, after just a few hours' rest, rather than returning to safety at Camp Clay, he chose to walk back to Rice's unburied body. He reenlisted in the peacetime army, and soon found himself expanding the telegraph network out west. Wyatt Sprague. Based on the author's exhaustive research, the incredible true story of the Greely Expedition, one of the most harrowing adventures in the annals of polar exploration. George Rice (Justin Mader): "Ellis tells me of being intimidated by the other occupants of his sleeping bag and talks of cannibalism. But that night a bitter storm collapsed the tent the seven survivors had occupied when the shelter flooded. Commanding Greely Relief Expedition. Sara E. Brown, Maps and Additional Animation George W. Two others were pouring some liquid from a rubber bottle into a tin can. It did no good. The survivors came to recognize the mental breakdown that presaged death. At Godhavn, Greenland, they picked up two Inuitdogsled drivers, as well as physician Octave Pierre Pavy and Mr. Clay who had continued scientific studies instead of returning on Florence with the remainder of the 1880 Ho… Like most others, Brainard desperately wanted to turn back and winter at Fort Conger. There's not a lot to do. Jerry Kobalenko, Writer: Greely believed that there were rescuers who were spending the winter on Littleton Island on the Greenland side, and that by the time spring came they would be rescued, and there'd be a lot of help coming. Lauren Noyes, An Apograph Productions Inc. film for AMERICAN EXPERIENCE But Brainard was engaged in the adventure of a lifetime. Jim Lotz, Writer: Rice had some experience of boats. Greely was relieved: "I am glad the ship has gone," he wrote, "it settles the party down to its legitimate work." Greely Expedition). Greely was captivated by the study of the earth's climate, and by the belief that the key lay in the Polar Regions. He was, in short, being asked to lead a mutiny. Patricia Yusah, Marketing and Communications In 1905, he accepted the honor of serving as the first president of The Explorers Club and in 1915, he invited the Italian polar geographer Arnaldo Faustini to the United States for a lecture tour. He had never again left the woman who, almost alone, had kept faith. George Rice (Justin Mader): "There's a hard trip before Shorty and myself. But he was the strongest man. Miraculously, Garlington's men all made their way to outposts on the Greenland coast over the next few weeks. The men, however, were hesitant to leave the relative safety of Fort Conger. First Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, commander of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, kept a journal from the beginning of the expedition in 1881 through his rescue in 1884. Narrator: The survivors dragged their crippled, screaming companion across the frozen wasteland until they were all near the point of collapse. The expedition also crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west and Lt. James B. Lockwood and Sgt. For Brainard, a collapse of discipline meant certain disaster; he would have no part in it. There was no rescue party waiting at Littleton Island -- there would be no deliverance on April 1st, or May 1st, or June 1st. 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